Herein we obtained a chemically bonded TiO2 (P25)-graphene nanocomposite photocatalyst with graphene oxide and P25, using a facile one-step hydrothermal method. During the hydrothermal reaction, both of the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of P25 were achieved. The as-prepared P25-graphene photocatalyst possessed great adsorptivity of dyes, extended light absorption range, and efficient charge separation properties simultaneously, which was rarely reported in other TiO2−carbon photocatalysts. Hence, in the photodegradation of methylene blue, a significant enhancement in the reaction rate was observed with P25-graphene, compared to the bare P25 and P25-CNTs with the same carbon content. Overall, this work could provide new insights into the fabrication of a TiO2−carbon composite as high performance photocatalysts and facilitate their application in the environmental protection issues.